During the 15th and 16th century and under the rule of Tuaregean Songhai Empire, Timbuktu city held the title, the African Islamic university, it was a students city living there from all over the African continent and studying in 150 universities.
When Europe burned women in streets against psychological issues, as witch-hunting, Timbuktu alone used to host 150 universities to teach Islamic and human sciences, it was intended for students from across the African continent.
At 1591 the Songhai Empire fall under the rule of Saadian dynasty, and then both become part of on Morocco until 1612 when it rains it’s independence again, during that time books become the main export of Timbuktu city, besides salt, gold, ivory, and slaves.
Today Timbuktu is part of Mali, hold the title “city of Islamic scholars,” it was built during the 10th century by the Tuareg, and they named it “Tim-Bouctou” means the place where covered by small dunes. Then it becomes one of the largest cities of the area until a drought force most of its inhabitants to leave during the 19th century.
The city of science and knowledge, on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, and it contains a vast number of old Islamic manuscripts, some of those where destroyed unfortunately by ISIS.
Photos are not mine and